9/11 brought the focus of the world on terrorism emanating from AfPak region.Soon US forces entered the region in pursuit of Osama Bin Laden the Al Qaeda chief & his band.
The War on Terror as it was called brought in Pakistan as a key state & ally for the US which required logistic support to transport troops,equipment & supplies to maintain the troops.
Pakistan which was forced to get into the war under threat against its protege the Taliban required peace on its eastern borders with India.While Musharraf was in charge, India could directly deal with the main power center which is the army and the period saw relative calm including from what we learn is a near agreement over Kashmir which got nixed at the last stage when Musharraf was forced to leave.
This brought in democracy in Pakistan with the military under Gen Ashfaq Kayani taking a back seat & letting the civilian government be the face of diplomacy while GHQ really controlled the policy.
As American pursuit intensified,Pakistan adopted a policy of using its civilian leadership to lull India into a complacent position. The year Pakistan’s civilian leadership came to office,major terror attack in Mumbai took place which investigations showed had the backing & participation of Pak Army & the ISI with LeT undertaking the operation. Pakistan’s civilian leadership condemned the attack & offered joint investigation pleading innocence while blaming non state actors in Pakistan for the attack & asking India to help the fledgling democracy as any hostile action from India would lead to a coup. This policy of showing helplessness deceived Indian ruling class into showing sympathy as well as thinking they could do business with the civilian government with Pakistan as the Pakistan Army showed no inclination to interfere. This policy has worked well for Pakistan as it bought peace on its border with India while it played a game of cat & mouse with the US milking it of aid in form of money as well as weapons.
In 2009, India gave up the its hardened position in Sharm el Shiekh & de linked action on terror with peace process.
Pakistan Army has used its civilian charade to keep India interested in peace & not pursue any policy that would have been costly for it while it was busy two timing the US in the WoT.India was put under pressure by US to take it easy while it needed Pakistan in AfPak.So the civilian government kept showing olive branches & also showing its helplessness & gaining sympathy from ruling party in Delhi & lulling them into believing that peace is possible with Pakistan. From time to time they kept testing it with terror attacks & found that their policy has worked.
Indian leadership in its pursuit of peace has engaged with a duplicitous civilian government which has no control over policy with India in fact has been hand in glove with the military.
Post 2014 it will all change as US goes,all energy will be focussed on India. India has committed a blunder by giving Pak breathing space over the last 5-6 years. We have already started seeing an escalation from their side with bombings against Indian interests in Afghanistan as well as increase ceasefire violations on the LoC